To the best of my knowledge, the default language for Arduino devices is like a miny version of the C programming language. The IDE allows you to create these programs. The usual destination is to an Arduino device.
You could, though, create a C-based program in this IDE. You could then transfer it to the Raspberry Pi that's running OctoPrint, compile it and run it there. Some of the assumptions in the Arduino IDE might be wrong, though. It's usual in that IDE to select the hardware you had in mind. The Raspberry is an ARM-based processor. It may or may not be the same as that of the typical Arduino device. Also, the library modules that you might find for the Arduino for your sensors may not be the correct ones for the Pi.
But you could create a C-based source code file on the Pi and then run a command-based compiler/linker to create an executable from it.
The Arduino does accept analogy inputs and I'm guessing that this might be where your code might talk to it. The Pi—unless someone corrects me—does not have analog inputs out of the box. But here is an Adafruit tutorial which describes how you might add a chip to allow this.