I have a server in the basement that I have installed octoprint on however the printer is upstairs in my office so there's no way to connect it via USB. Is there a way I can have a pi facilitate the connection for me over the network
In theory yes, if something like
socat is an option, however I'd strongly recommend against this. Printer connection can be flaky enough as is, adding the additional troubleshooting of a more or less stable network connection into the mix will only be a recipe for tears.
Get yourself a Pi and connect your printer directly to it.